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Dr. John S. Pemberton Bibliography

John S.Pemberton who was called Doc was a pharmacist living in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Born in Knoxville, Georgia in 1831, but he spent his childhood in Rome, Georgia. He developed many patent medicines recognized by the public usefulness. He found the formula of Coca-Cola on May 8, 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

After completing his studies at Southern Botanico Medical College of Georgia in 1850, Pemberton made a book about "Samuel Thomson` s Complete System of Practice ". In 1855, Pemberton received his pharmacy medicine from the University of Philadelphia. Later, he moved to Columbus Georgia, with his wife Anna Eliza Clifford Lewis and his son Charles Ney Pemberton.

Before finding the formula of Coca Cola, in May 1862 Pemberton had a career in the military with the rank of lieutenant in the unity of the army. As the squad leader, he was responsible for keeping the town. Even in war, Pemberton was shot in the chest.

After a five-year career in the military, worked as an assistant to Dr. Pemberton. Austin Walker, a psychologist. During the work, Pemberton invested all the proceeds for research and development in the field of rights of ownership of the goods or products, such as perfume oils and traditional medicines. In 1869, Pemberton moved to Atlanta Georgia, to build his business career. In the city of Atlanta, he managed to create and sell beverages containing alcohol French Wine Coca.

However, the drinks business that gives a lot of income that does not run smoothly. Since Atlanta has prohibited the use of alcohol in 1885, Pemberton had to swap the French Wine Coca formula by removing the word French Wine. Since forbidden, cocaine is no longer the main content of Coca Cola, but was replaced with caffeine, sugar, citric acid, starch and oil fruits are allowed. Coca Cola formula is still a secret stored neatly.

Together with his colleagues who take care of finances, Frank Robinson, Pemberton made fresh drinks that can be enjoyed a lot of people. He concocting drinks French Wine with added sugar, citric acid, starch and oil fruits into the drink. Finally, Coca-Cola created the now popular as carbonated soft drinks in a short period.

For the main ingredient, Pemberton had to find and collect seeds cola plant native to tropical regions of West Africa and the tree coca leaves from South America. The process of drying coca leaves and cola nuts done manually. Pemberton makes the business successful refreshments. Potion materialize as he had hoped. Then, Robinson suggested the name Coca-Cola for the potion which was immediately accepted by Pemberton. Coca Cola formula subsequently by Pemberton was named "Merchandise 7X", or abbreviated M7X and highly confidential.

In marketing this beverage products, Pemberton and Robinson had to fight hard. They are sold in jars and carried around the city using a cart horse. In fact, they have to sell for free to introduce Coca Cola. Despite getting good response from the public, but the income is not increasing. In the first year, sales of Coca Cola only sold about 50 million U.S. dollars. Meanwhile, Pemberton was determined if this potion must be widespread and can be enjoyed by all people around the world.

After a year of fighting for his creation, Pemberton realized that he was an inventor. Later, he was thinking of selling this herb in the right people who can develop appropriate dreams. Then he went to Asa Candler, a child's well-known merchant of Atlanta, whom he knew well. He sold the patent rights to manufacture Coca Cola U.S. $ 2,300 price.

After getting the concoction, Asa Candler trying to process the findings of Pemberton. After work, Candler store at attractive containers to invite buyers, the urn bearing the Coca Cola. Not only that, Candler also put up banners reading "Selling Drink Coca Cola" in front of the drug store dr. Joseph Pharmacy. In just a few hours of the drink sold. Asa Candler in 1889 by Joseph Jacob's Pharmacy store sells Coca Cola for the first time.

In 1892, Candler decided to form The Coca Cola Company, Atlanta in Georgia with their relationships. A year kemudain, 1893 Candler patented Coca Cola as a trademark. Coca Cola soft drink is not actually the first in the United States, but when it got patent Coca Cola became the main beverage sold in the Soda Fountain, store soft drinks, ice cream, and so on. Dr. John Stith Pemberton died in 1888, at age 58, not long after selling the potion. Now, the findings are still enjoyed by the people in the world. Coca Cola now become a cultural symbol of the United States.

This article is about the American druggist. For other people named John Pemberton, see John Pemberton (disambiguation).

John Pemberton

John Stith Pemberton

Born(1831-07-08)July 8, 1831
Knoxville, Georgia, U.S.
DiedAugust 16, 1888(1888-08-16) (aged 57)
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Cause of deathStomach cancer
Resting placeLinwood Cemetery, Columbus, Georgia, U.S.
ResidencePemberton House, Columbus, Georgia, U.S.
EducationReform Medical College of Georgia
OccupationPharmacist
Known forinventor of Coca-Cola
Spouse(s)Ann Eliza Clifford Lewis
ChildrenCharles Ney Pemberton
Parent(s)James Pemberton (father)
Martha L. Gant (mother)

John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American pharmacist who is best known for being the founder of Coca-Cola. In May 1886, he developed an early version of a beverage that would later become world-famous as Coca-Cola, but sold his rights to the drink shortly before his death.

Background[edit]

Pemberton was born July 8, 1831, in Knoxville, Georgia, and spent most of his childhood in Rome, Georgia. His parents were James C. Pemberton and Martha L. Gant. He entered the Reform Medical College of Georgia in Macon, and in 1850, at the age of nineteen, he was licensed to practice pharmacy, however his main talent was chemistry[1] Shortly thereafter, he met Ann Eliza Clifford Lewis of Columbus, Georgia, known to her friends as "Cliff", who had been a student at the Wesleyan College in Macon. They were married in Columbus in 1853. Their only child, Charles Ney Pemberton, was born in 1854. They lived in the Pemberton House in Columbus.[2][3][4]

During the American Civil War, Pemberton served in the Third Cavalry Battalion of the Georgia State Guard, which was at that time a component of the Confederate army. He achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Founding of Coca-Cola[edit]

In April 1865, Pemberton sustained a saber wound to the chest during the Battle of Columbus. He soon became addicted to the morphine used to ease his pain.[5][6][7]

In 1866, seeking a cure for his addiction, he began to experiment with painkillers that would serve as opium-free alternatives to morphine.[8][9][10] His first recipe was "Dr. Tuggle's Compound Syrup of Globe Flower", in which the active ingredient was derived from the buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), a toxic plant which is common in Alaska.[11] He next began experimenting with coca and coca wines, eventually creating a recipe which contained extracts of kola nut and damiana, which he called Pemberton's French Wine Coca.[12][13]

According to Coca-Cola historian Phil Mooney, Pemberton's world-famous soda was "created in Columbus, Georgia and carried to Atlanta".[14] With public concern about the drug addiction, depression, and alcoholism among war veterans, and "neurasthenia", as well as among "highly-strung" Southern women,[15] Pemberton's medicine was advertised as particularly beneficial for "ladies, and all those whose sedentary employment causes nervous prostration".[16]

In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County enacted temperance legislation, Pemberton found himself forced to produce a non-alcoholic alternative to his French Wine Coca.[17] Pemberton relied on Atlanta drugstore owner-proprietor Willis E. Venable to test, and help him perfect, the recipe for the beverage, which he formulated by trial and error. With Venable's assistance, Pemberton worked out a set of directions for its preparation that eventually included blending the base syrup with carbonated water by accident when trying to make another glassful of the beverage.[clarification needed] Pemberton decided then to sell it as a fountain drink rather than a medicine. Frank Mason Robinson came up with the name "Coca-Cola" for the alliterative sound, which was popular among other wine medicines of the time. Although the name quite clearly refers to the two main ingredients, the controversy over its cocaine content would later prompt The Coca-Cola Company to state that the name was "meaningless but fanciful". Robinson also hand wrote the Spencerian script on the bottles and ads. Pemberton made many health claims for his product, touting it as a "valuable brain tonic" that would cure headaches, relieve exhaustion, and calm nerves, and marketed it as "delicious, refreshing, pure joy, exhilarating", and "invigorating".

Pemberton sells the business[edit]

Soon after Coca-Cola hit the market, Pemberton fell ill and nearly bankrupt. Sick and desperate, he began selling rights to his formula to his business partners in Atlanta. Part of his motivation to sell actually derived from his expensive continuing morphine addiction.[18] Pemberton had a hunch that his formula "some day will be a national drink", so he attempted to retain a share of the ownership to leave to his son.[18] However, Pemberton's son wanted the money, so in 1888 Pemberton and his son sold the remaining portion of the patent to Asa Candler.

Death[edit]

John Pemberton died from stomach cancer at age 57 in August 1888. At the time of his death, he also suffered from poverty and addiction to morphine. His body was returned to Columbus, Georgia, where he was buried at Linwood Cemetery. His gravemarker is engraved with symbols showing his service in the Confederate army and his pride in being a Freemason. His son Charley continued to sell his father's formula, but only six years later Charles Pemberton died, an opium user himself.[19]

In popular culture[edit]

In the 2000 episode of the animated television series "Futurama" titled "The Deep South," a man resembling Pemberton and referred to as "the guy who invented Coca-Cola" is chosen as one of the few important people to leave the city of Atlanta, just before it sinks into the Atlantic Ocean.

In 2010, the Coca-Cola Company paid tribute to Pemberton as a key character within an advertising campaign called "Secret Formula". Centered on the secret ingredients of Coca-Cola, imagery related to Pemberton was used to make people more aware of Coke's history and mythology.

In 2013, Pemberton was portrayed by Bill Hader in the "Atlanta" episode of Comedy Central's Drunk History, created by Derek Waters.

Welsh rock band Manic Street Preachers have an album track on their Know Your Enemy album called "Freedom of Speech Won't Feed My Children". The song, which could be viewed as a sarcastic anti-American rant, contains the line 'J.S. Pemberton saved our lives'.

In the FALLOUT video game series, the soft-drink Nuka-Cola (based on Coca-Cola) was invented by a man named John-Caleb Bradberton. The name comes from an amalgamation of John Pemberton and Pepsi creator Caleb Bradham. The character's look and mannerisms are based on both men.

References[edit]

  1. ^King, Monroe M. "John Stith Pemberton (1831-1888)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 13 June 2017. Web. 11 September 2017.
  2. ^George B. Griffenhagen, A Guide to Pharmacy Museums and Historical Collections in the United States and Canada, Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy, 1999, pp. 23–24
  3. ^Alice Cromie, Restored America: A Tour Guide: the Preserved Towns, Villages, and Historic City Districts of the United States and Canada, American Legacy Press, 1979, p. 135 [1]
  4. ^Alice Cromie, Restored towns and historic districts of America: a tour guide, Dutton, 1979, p. 135
  5. ^Richard Gardiner, "The Civil War Origin of Coca-Cola in Columbus, Georgia", Muscogiana: Journal of the Muscogee Genealogical Society (Spring 2012), Vol. 23: 21–24.
  6. ^Dominic Streatfeild, Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography, Macmillan (2003), p. 80.
  7. ^Richard Davenport-Hines, The Pursuit of Oblivion, Norton (2004), p. 152.
  8. ^John McKay, It Happened in Atlanta (Morris Books, 2011), 36.
  9. ^Jeremy Agnew, Alcohol and Opium in the Old West, 173.
  10. ^Albert Jack, They Laughed at Galileo, 184
  11. ^Columbus Enquirer, March 18, 1866
  12. ^Dominic Streatfeild, meth: An Unauthorized Biography, Macmillan (2003), p. 80.
  13. ^Richard Davenport-Hines, The Pursuit of Oblivion, Norton (2004), p. 152.
  14. ^Tim Chitwood, Columbus Ledger-Enquirer
  15. ^John Shelton Reed, Minding The South, University of Missouri Press (2099), p.171.
  16. ^American Soft Drink and the Company that Makes It, Basic Books: enlarged 2nd edition (2000), p.24.
  17. ^"Is This the Real Thing? Coca-Cola's Secret Formula "Discovered" by This American Life – TIME.com". TIME.com. 
  18. ^ ab"For youth God, Country and Coca-Cola". google.com. p. 34. 
  19. ^Pendergrast, Mark (2000). "The tangled chain of title". For God, country, and Coca-Cola: the unauthorized history of the great American soft drink and the company that makes it (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 34–46. ISBN 978-0465054688. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Schoenberg, B S (1988), "Coke's the one: the centennial of the 'ideal brain tonic' that became a symbol of America", South. Med. J. (published Jan 1988), 81 (1), pp. 69–74, doi:10.1097/00007611-198801000-00015, PMID 3276011 
  • King, M M (1987), "Dr. John S. Pemberton: originator of Coca-Cola", Pharmacy in history, 29 (2), pp. 85–9, PMID 11621277 
  • Hasegawa, Guy (March 1, 2000), "Pharmacy in the American Civil War", American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 57 (5), pp. 457–489, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 

External links[edit]

A sign in Knoxville, Georgia commemorating John Pemberton
Grave of John Pemberton in Columbus, Georgia

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