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Bibliography Same As Above

Chicago/Turabian Subsequent Notes

Once you have spelled out a source's information in full in its first note, all subsequent notes take a shorter form.

In addition to the shorter form, the Chicago Manual and Turabian identify rules for using the Latin abbreviation "Ibid." when you refer to one source twice (or more) in a row.

Shortened form

When citing a source you have already noted in full, use a shorter form so your reader knows what earlier source you are referring to.

Same work and author; only source by that author

If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author's last name and page reference:

First note

8. Raúl Sánchez, "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 243.

Subsequent note

22. Sánchez, 265.

Two or more works by same author

If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.

First note

1. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

Subsequent note

23. Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.

Two authors with the same last name

If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.

Latin abbreviations

When a note refers to the same work as the previous note, you can use "ibid." to refer back to the previous source. This is acceptable even if several pages of text separate the two notes.

"Ibid." is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means "in the same place."

The abbreviation "Ibid." is followed by a page number if the page from which the second reference is taken is different from the first. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary.

Example notes

Note that the first source is given a shortened form in note 3, then referred to with "ibid." in notes 4 and 5.

1. Colleen Dunlavy, "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" in Major Problems in American Business History, ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006), 260.

2. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

3. Dunlavy, 261.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 262.

The word ibid stands for ibidem, which means “in the same place.” The word is Latin in origin and is used when writing reference notes in a written body of work. A note gives details about the origin of information given in the larger text. When two consecutive notes come from the same place, the word ibid is used. This saves the space of writing the whole note out again, and lets the reader know that he or she can go to the same place that was just referred to in order to find the information. Because ibid is an abbreviation for a larger word, it always has a period after it. 

Examples of Ways Ibid. Can Be Used

First use of source. One page number used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the exact same page number in the same source, and a full bibliography is used, and it is the first note citing that particular source:

Example:

1. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, 471.

2. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 471 of Leo Tolstoy’s book Anna Karenina

Example:

5. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, 54.

6. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 54 of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s book The Scarlet Letter.

First use of source. More than one page number used.

If the situation is the same as above; however, more than one page number is referenced:

Example:

112. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, 110-112.

113. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to pages 110-112 of Michael Pollan’s book The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Even though the note refers to more than one page, ibid may still be used as long as the page numbers are the same in the consecutive notes.

In all of the above examples, the place of publication, publishing company, and year of publication are not listed in the note because they will be found in the bibliography. The author’s full name is given because it is the first reference to their work.

Second use of source. One page number used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the exact same page number in the same source, and a full bibliography is used, and it is not the first note citing that particular source:

Example:

10. Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, 471.

11. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 471 of Leo Tolstoy’s book Anna Karenina.  

Example:

9. Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, 54.

10. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 54 of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s book The Scarlet Letter.

In the above two examples, the publication information is not listed in the note because it will be found in the bibliography. Only the author’s last name is given because this work has been referenced in earlier notes.    

Second use of source. More than one page number used.

If the situation is the same as above; however, more than one page number is referenced:

Example:

112. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 110-112.     

113. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to pages 110-112 of Michael Pollan’s book The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Publishing company and year of publication are not listed in the note because they will be found in the bibliography.  Only the author’s last name and a shortened version of the title are given because this work has been referenced in earlier notes.  Even though the note refers to more than one page, ibid may still be used as long as the page numbers are the same in the consecutive notes.    

Multiple use of source. No full biography. One page number used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the exact same page number in the same source, and a full bibliography is not used, and it is the first note citing that particular source:

Example:

1. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina (New York: New American Library, 1961), 471.

2. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 471 of Leo Tolstoy’s book Anna Karenina.

Example:

9. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (New York: Bantam, 1965), 54.

10. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 54 of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s book The Scarlet Letter.

In both of the above examples, the place of publication, publishing company, and year of publication are listed in the note because a full bibliography is not used, and because it is the first reference to this work.

 

Multiple use of source. No full biography. More than one page number used.

If the situation is the same as above; however, more than one page number is referenced:

Example:

112. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 110-112.

113. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to pages 110-112 of Michael Pollan’s book The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Even though the note refers to more than one page, ibid may still be used as long as the page numbers are the same in the consecutive notes.    

Consecutive citings of source. No full biography. One page number used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the exact same page number in the same source, and a full bibliography is not used, and it is not the first note citing that particular source:

Example:

1. Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, 471.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

This means that all three notes refer to page 471 of Leo Tolstoy’s book Anna Karenina. Place of publication, publishing company, and year of publication are not listed in the note because it is not the first reference to this work. The details of the source can be found in the first note.  Only the author’s last name is used for this same reason; it is appropriate to use a shortened note.

Example:

9. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (New York: Bantam, 1965), 54.

10. Ibid.

This means that both notes refer to page 54 of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s book The Scarlet Letter. Place of publication, publishing company, and year of publication are not listed in the note because it is not the first reference to this work. The details of the source can be found in the first note.  Only the author’s last name is used for this same reason; it is appropriate to use a shortened note.

 

Consecutive citing of source. No full biography. More than one page number used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the exact same page numbers in the same source, and a full bibliography is not used, and it is not the first note citing that particular source, and more than one page number is referenced:

Example:

112. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 110-112.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid.  

This means that all three notes refer to pages 110-112 of Michael Pollan’s book The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Place of publication, publishing company, and year of publication are not listed in the note because it is not the first reference to this work. The details of the source can be found in the first note. Only the author’s last name and a shortened version of the title are used for this same reason; it is appropriate to use a shortened note.  Even though the note refers to more than one page, ibid may still be used as long as the page numbers are the same in the consecutive notes.    

Consecutive citing of source. No full biography. Different page numbers used.

When two or more consecutive notes come from the same source but occur on different page numbers:

Examples:

1. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, 471.

2. Ibid., 501.

3. Ibid., 606.

 

12. Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, 23.

13. Ibid, 41.

 

34. Irma S. Rombauer, The Joy of Cooking (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1941), 271.

35. Ibid., 302.  

36. Ibid., 319.

Ibid indicates that the author and title are the same, but the page number is different. Other details as mentioned above remain the same.

Not first citing of source. Different page numbers used of same source and interspersed with other sources.

When multiple notes refer to the same page in the same work, but notes referring to other works are interspersed:

Example:

1. Sears, The Discipline Book, 25.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid., 41.

4. Dobson, Dare to Discipline, 101.

5. Sears, The Discipline Book, 123.

Even though The Discipline Book is referenced in notes 1-3, the same details must still be listed in note 5 since note 4 referers to a different work.

Example:

6. William Sears, The Baby Book (Los Angeles: Little, Brown, 2004), 25.

7. Ibid., 51.

8. C.S. Lewis, The Great Divorce (New York: Scribner, 1938), 11.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid, 18.

11. Sears, The Baby Book, 41.

12. Ibid., 92 – 95.

Even thought The Baby Book is referenced in notes 6-7, the author and title must still be listed in notes 11-12 since notes 8-10 refer to a different work.  However, since the full name of the author and publishing company have already been used, a shortened note is appropriate.

Not first citing of source. Different page numbers used of same source and separated by many pages.

When two consecutive notes refer to the same work, but are separated by many pages in a larger text:

Example:

1. Cervantes, Don Quixote, 400.

2. Ibid., 501.

3. Ibid., 606.

 

12. McCarthy, Belly Laughs, 86.  

13. Ibid, 91.

 

34. Michael Savage, The Political Zoo (Nashville: Nelson Current, 2006), 49.

35. Ibid., 81.  

36. Ibid., 100.

Even though many pages separate the individual notes, ibid can still be used because notes referencing other works do not interrupt the notes referencing the same work. Only the page numbers need to be adjusted.

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Ibid Examples

By YourDictionary

The word ibid stands for ibidem, which means “in the same place.” The word is Latin in origin and is used when writing reference notes in a written body of work. A note gives details about the origin of information given in the larger text. When two consecutive notes come from the same place, the word ibid is used. This saves the space of writing the whole note out again, and lets the reader know that he or she can go to the same place that was just referred to in order to find the information. Because ibid is an abbreviation for a larger word, it always has a period after it. 

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